Saturday, October 28, 2006

More information on Rollerball and Ballpoint pens

by team UAB

Since the question came up after Elise's presentation and I was curious, I thought I would find out what was unique to the different pen types. The basic difference comes down to the ink. This link is to a Wikipedia article. I reviewed a number of sites, but this one had more complete information about the differences of rollerball and the advantages versus disadvantages. I will also include some other links below for your interest.

Monday, September 25, 2006

Microstamping: Cost vs. Benefit

submit by troy m; comments by blogger jgl

Neat idea (click headline). If they only could stamp the bullet too. Almost everyone agrees that microstamping would be a good thing in many/few cases. Of course, there is a slight difference of opinion as to the cost.

A new, ultra-precise laser technology can engrave the entire alphabet on the tip of a ballpoint pen. It's called microstamping, and it's got the attention of some law enforcement officials, intrigued by its potential use in solving gun crimes...

...For two years, the California Legislature has considered bills mandating that all new handguns be manufactured with microstamping, through which a weapon's firing pin engraves the serial number, make and model on bullet casings...

...Keane and other gun industry representatives say the technology is flawed primarily because the microscopic etchings can be easily filed off using common household tools. They also say it could cost up to $150 per firearm...

..."This is technology that would cost manufacturers from 50 cents to a dollar," said Paul Helmke, president of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, countering the cost argument.

Give or take $149.50.

Monday, September 18, 2006

Lawyers "Don't Get" Science

submit by troy m; comments by blogger jgl

I always knew the juries didn't understand evidence, but the lawyers too?

Judith Fordham said that when she was working as a lawyer, before becoming an associate professor in forensic science, she realised how little she and her colleagues knew about forensics...

..."I found that jurors wanted to ask questions about scientific and medical evidence in court because lawyers hadn't asked the right questions,'' said Prof Fordham, who still practises as a barrister while working at Murdoch University.

"Many lawyers have also never learnt how to present forensic evidence because they have no scientific training, despite the huge rise in the use of such evidence.

"So people are potentially being convicted or acquitted wrongly because lawyers don't know enough about science -- it's scary."

I think this may trump up the effects resulting from a lawyer's lack of scientific knowledge.
Since when does a lawyer have to know what he/she is talking about?

Tuesday, September 12, 2006

DNA Databases gone awry?

by team UAB, jla

If we, as a society, continue to solely rely on DNA databases for conviction of crimes, then what's next? Profiling based on genetic code could become a possibility (anyone seen the movie Gataca?).

In Britain, a national criminal database established in 1995 now contains 2.5 million DNA samples. Countries including the United States and Canada are developing similar systems.

Jeffreys, who was knighted in 1994, welcomes DNA databases but has qualms about how the British one has been set up. He fears that stored DNA samples could be used to extract information about a person’s medical history, ethnic origin or psychological profile.

And he opposes the practice, approved by a British court in 2002, of retaining DNA samples from suspects who are acquitted, leading to a “criminal” database that contains many people guilty of no crime.

“My view is, that is discriminatory,” Jeffreys said. “It works on a premise that the suspect population, even if innocent, is more likely to offend in the future.”

Jeffreys advocates a truly national database including every individual, with strict restrictions on what information could be stored.

“There is the long-term risk that people can get into these samples and start teasing out additional information” about a person’s paternity or risk of disease, he said. “The police have absolutely no right to that sort of information.”.

Thursday, September 07, 2006

Forensics to prove Big Foot?

by team UAB, kpf

Is this really what Forensic Science is coming to? I doubt it, but some scientists dont really know where to draw the line between real and fairytale!

Yet a small but vociferous number of scientists remain undeterred. Risking ridicule from other academics, they propose that there's enough forensic evidence to warrant something that has never been done: a comprehensive, scientific study to determine if the legendary primate actually exists..."Given the scientific evidence that I have examined, I'm convinced there's a creature out there that is yet to be identified," said Jeff Meldrum, a professor of anatomy and anthropology at Idaho State University in Pocatello.

What are your thoughts on this notion?

Forensics on trial: Chemical matching of bullets comes under fire

by team UAB, hjt

I wonder if this means that the FBI and others will now have to go back and reexamine cases is which a conviction was made solely based on the bullet lead chemical analysis. How do you get to be a forensic metallurgist?

In 1997, a jury convicted Michael Behm of murdering a man in South River, N.J. The only physical evidence linking Behm to the murder was bullet fragments from the crime scene. An FBI examiner testified in court that the fragments chemically matched bullets from a box of ammunition Behm had at his home.

Since that trial, a growing body of research has revealed that the practice of chemically matching bullets is seriously flawed. This February, a report released by the National Academies in Washington D.C. called on the FBI to revise its rules on interpreting data from chemical analyses of bullets and to limit how its examiners testify about such data in the courtroom. The FBI has used chemical analysis of bullets in some 2,500 investigations since the early 1980s. Among those, there were 500 cases in which the prosecution introduced such analyses as evidence during trials. But the story of bullet chemical analysis has even broader implications; it emphasizes the need to keep science honest, especially in the courtroom.

Robotics Put To Use In DNA South African Lab

by team UAB, jkl

I'm not sure how I feel about this new robotics system. It will increase lab productivity while decreasing staffing requirements. I guess we'll see how things go for South Africa...

The South African Police Service (SAPS) today unveiled a R75 million robotics system at its brand new Forensic Science Laboratory in Pretoria.
There has been criticism in recent weeks of South Africa's DNA testing capabilities, and the SAPS says no other law enforcement agency in the world has anything like it, as it combines the latest technology into a single system. The system can handle 800 DNA samples per day and runs 24hours, seven days a week...
Greyling says the concept of laboratory automation is common in that liquid handling machines are used all over the world as part of the DNA testing procedure, but in this case there is no further contact between man and machine once the evidence is submitted, right up to where the forensic report is printed.
He says the new robotics system will greatly increase capacity at the lab. Currently, 50 analysts manually process between 200 to 300 samples per day. The new system can process a maximum of 800 samples daily.

Incompetence in England's Home Office

by team UAB,eea

I found this article both a little comforting and frightening at the same time. Comforting because forensic evidence got the right people behind bars; frightening because the Home Office's Forensic Science Service missed such obvious evidence.

Detective Superintendent Nick Ephgrave, who took over the running of the investigation at the end of the first trial, asked a different laboratory, run by private firm Forensic Alliance, to re-examine all the items in the case.

The lab found that a bloodstain on a shoe, easily visible to the human eye, had been missed along with blood drops and fibres on the suspects' other clothes.

The police investigation alone into the killing has cost almost $7.6 million.

Who trains these people anyway?

Wednesday, September 06, 2006

The "CSI Effect"

by blogger ala

I think this article contains some very valid points about the effects that television shows have on forensic investigations. I mean, do we really need to give criminals any advantages?

"But while this interest is sexing up the image of scientists, is it also stopping police catching criminals and securing convictions?"

Tuesday, September 05, 2006

UK Serial Rapist Sentenced

by team UAB, lsw

I saw this as a news channel headline yesterday. Interesting that they found this guy after 20 years, and that a DNA profile from his sister led to his capture:

Ms Wright said Lloyd was caught after South Yorkshire Police decided to reopen the case five years ago.

DNA from samples at the time were compared with samples on the police database.

More than 40 close matches were eventually obtained and the third house police knocked on turned out to be that of Lloyd's sister, whose sample had been taken when she was arrested for drink-driving.

Brain Fingerprinting, The New Lie Detector

by team UAB,slh

As much as I want to believe this, I am having some doubts. Like, what if something happened so long ago, that I forget it. Perhaps, no one could forget comitting a murder.

The most popular method of lie detection in use today is the polygraph machine, developed in the 1930s, but its accuracy is widely disputed. That's one reason why, in the Department of Justice's investigation of the more than 1,200 people so far detained in the investigation of the Sept. 11 attacks, the polygraph may be joined by at least one new lie detection mechanism.

It's been dubbed "brain fingerprinting" by its architect, former Harvard Medical School faculty member Lawrence Farwell. Farwell's lie detection method kicks in before a person even has the chance to lie by looking for a telltale brainwave after a subject is flashed a cue having something to do with the crime — such as the murder weapon, the direction the victim was facing, etc. That brainwave only appears if the person has a memory of that information stored in their brain.
In that way, says Farwell, "it doesn't really detect lying at all. It detects information stored in the brain. But if someone has committed a crime, they have a record of that in their brain, and we can detect if they have the details of a specific crime stored in their mind."

Saturday, August 26, 2006

CASE CLOSED! - update

by blogger jgl

original posting from rocky mountain news

Boulder District Attorney investigator Mark Spray has contacted a man who believes he could have encountered the JonBenet Ramsey murder suspect on a bus in the early morning hours of Dec. 26, 1996.

Daniel Pride, now of Portsmouth, N.H., said he was at the downtown bus station in Boulder sometime shortly after 12:30 a.m. when a man arrived, behaving strangely and bearing a resemblance to John Mark Karr, arrested last week in the case.

He said the man didn't want to be noticed and pulled away when Pride asked if he had a light for a cigarette. The man boarded the same bus as Pride, and exchanged strange glances with him once aboard, Pride said.


I'll admit it. When you're wrong, you're wrong. I thought for sure that when they found that guy that thought he might have seen someone that may have looked something like John Karr at a bus stop 10 years ago... I really took a bath on that one.

What's the deal with this DNA evidence? Does anyone know if they have a full profile? no hits in CODIS? have they revisited the evidence with mini-strs? Is this public information or is it intellectual property of the state of Colorado?

Wednesday, August 23, 2006

NEWSFLASH! Possible Conspiracy!

stolen from; comments by blogger jgl

This news article is kind of misleading. It seems to suggest that the "single bullet" JFK theory is fatally flawed. Actually, it just *might* be fatally flawed.

Basically, in 1976 an assassination commission hired some bullet guy do some elemental analysis on bullet fragments. He said it looked like 2 bullets were found in the Kennedy car. Everyone now seems to agree that this elemental analysis of bullets is crap. In other words, there *could* have been more than 2 bullets. But this new "review" doesn't suggest that there definitely were more than 2 bullets.

According to Guinn, one set of fragments from the president's brain and the limousine in front of the president had around .06 percent antimony, and all came from the bullet that killed JFK. The other set of fragments from the governor's wrist and a nearly intact bullet found on a stretcher at the hospital had closer to .08 percent antimony and were pieces of the infamous "single bullet."

Based on evidence including the bullet lead, the committee concluded in 1979 that both shots had come from Oswald's gun...

...The FBI claimed that like a fingerprint, each batch of lead has a unique chemical signature, so the specific amounts of impurities in a lead bullet could match it with other bullets from the same batch. For example, if bullets at a suspect's house were found to have the same impurity signature as a bullet or fragment found at a murder scene, it was treated as evidence tying the suspect to the crime.

Randich's training as a metallurgist told him there was something wrong with this reasoning.

The Randich and Grant article is in Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 2006.

Weirdo Alert!

by blogger jgl

This article is just the latest from this whole ridiculous thing. I never followed the case that closely. What is the deal with the DNA evidence? Do they have a full str profile? It was on her underwear, but not semen? What's the theoretical source?

Also, we were told the reason they arrested this guy (they must have received dozens of false confessions) is because he knew something only the killer would know. Well, what is that something? Did I miss it?

This is shameful if this guy just turns out to be a pervert liar.

With so much riding on a DNA match, the slower pace of events may reflect the prosecutor's wish to follow a strict protocol, experts said.

Although authorities reportedly took DNA from the suspect in Bangkok, potential legal and technical questions could plague a sample taken overseas, said Lawrence Kobilinsky, professor of forensic science at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York.

And could we please stop referring to him as John Mark Karr. We get it. People with 3 names are famous murderers. Cripes!

Tuesday, June 06, 2006

Forensic Footwear Round-up

by blogger jgl

Our first email. From a forensic science student...

I have an English course that requires me to engage in a blog conversation and use the information gathered as a source in a research paper. My proposed topic deals with footwear impressions and how the environment can affect this type of evidence.

I understand this is a lot to ask but I would like to make a request for a blog post. I was wondering if you could educate me on what the new techniques are for casting footwear impressions in snow. Any help you or your blogger colleagues can give will be greatly appreciated.

I figure a couple links might help out. If anyone has other good ones, please post it in the comments section.

SWGTREAD looks like a relatively new scientific working group for impression evidence. This is a good. I'm not sure if there was any official or semi-official organization for impression examiners. Obviously, for an area that relies heavily on the examiners *interpretation* of the evidence, sharing and trying to develop standardized methods is necessary.

Here are a couple links to pdf files of what looks to be a Journal of Forensic Identification publication (i'm not sure who is hosting the files).
Lab Collection & Field Collection

Neat site from footprint investigators in the Maryland area - C.A.S.T.

Concerning shoeprints in snow, who better to go to than a distributor who is trying to sell a product! - Snow Print Wax

And how about a link to a numbskulled professor's powerpoint?

There we go. A lot of information is all over the place. Does anyone think it would be useful/possible to have sections of AAFS work up some web pages containing information about the field just as a service to the public? Or just have a team that contributes to the information on wikipedia (and babysits it for accuracy)?

Friday, May 26, 2006

Catch Terrorists with Pollen!

submit by troym; comments by blogger jgl

"Waiter, there's a dandelion seed in my jihad!"

Federal investigators are using pollen to try to track and catch criminals and even terrorists. It's one of a number of new forensic techniques being explored in the wake of 9-11.

Vaughn Bryant looks at pollen for microscopic clues that could help solve a crime or even catch a terrorist.

The Texas A&M professor has pioneered the use of pollen as a forensic tool.

“One of the advantages that we have the bad guys, the crooks, don't realize that their clothing, their hands, things that they come in contact with are picking up these little microscopic pollen grains that they don't even see,” Bryant said.

All of the pollen that people are breathing in is also landing on our clothes, landing on the ground. So the pollen at A&M is going to produce a pollen print as we call it kind of like a DNA, which is going to be fairly unique to the one area.

In theory, this is a good idea. As long as an expert doesn't get on the stand and say, "The pollen print at the crime scene and the pollen print on the suspects trousers were a *match*." This is one of those areas where quantifying what a *match* means might be tough. Is it specific to a city? A neighborhood? Someone's yard? And how much does it remain consistent over time?

But I guess that is what research is for... This would be good project to conduct in many different geographical locations with the help of a lot of investigators. It's a shame that any old idiot/lab monkey couldn't do this. It seems like only a very experienced botonist would have the skills to conduct the analysis.

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Relative DNA: Good Policing or Good Harassment?

submit by troym; comments by blogger jgl

Articles like this have been all over the news for a couple weeks now. NPR did a fine story on it here. Troy sent in this article and made the point "using DNA profiles of a suspects' family members in criminal investigations (is this not a civil liberties issue)?" It is.

Victims of mass tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina and the World Trade Center attacks are often identified using the DNA of surviving relatives. Now, scientists say the same technique could help nab criminals.

When crime scene evidence does not match anyone in the criminal DNA database, investigators could also check for close matches. These near misses could be close relatives of the suspect, said forensic mathematician Charles Brenner of DNA-VIEW in Oakland, a visiting scholar at UC Berkeley.

A relative's match would not provide any direct evidence for building a case against a suspect, but it might provide new leads.

"It could be beneficial," said Sgt. Brian Dickerson of the Richmond Police Department's family services unit. "Anything that gives us additional leads would be good."

"There's obviously a balancing act between privacy and public safety," said John Tonkyn at the state DNA lab in Richmond.

Here is how it works. DNA found at a crime scene does not match any criminals in the database. However, it might "closely match" 5 criminals in the database. So in theory, the guilty person could be a brother/son/relative of any one of the 5 criminals.

The technique can definitely be beneficial for investigators, but essentially it creates a somewhat random pool of "potential offenders", all but one of whom is innocent (or all of whom are innocent). So the downside is that the police have an "excuse" to bother a bunch of people that had nothing to do with the crime. In theory, the police would never abuse this power, but a similar thing happened to Brandon Mayfield when his fingerprint almost matched that of the Madrid train bomber.

For the DNA analysts out there... i first heard about this being used with CODIS STRs. In the article, the focus is on using Y-STRs. it seems like this would be worse (create a larger pool and requires extra testing). thoughts?

Thursday, May 11, 2006

Duke DNA (mitochondrial?)

by blogger jgl

They don't some out and say it, but i assume they got some mtDNA from the fingernail scrapings. You'd think some mini-STRs could turn up something a little more "incriminating".

How would this work, did NC do the extractions and attempt STRs, then sent the extractions out for mtDNA anaysis? Or did they do mtDNA in the state lab? or did they send some of the scrapings out for extraction and analysis?

This will be interesting to follow. What's the latest verdict on how the jury perceives mtDNA evidence?

DURHAM, N.C. - Forensic scientists might have found a DNA link between a Duke lacrosse player and the female stripper who alleges she was raped at a players' house party March 13-14, the Durham Herald Sun reported Thursday.

Scientists have found tissue under a fingernail of the woman, which scientists concluded originated from the same gene pool and was "consistent" with one of 46 lacrosse players who gave DNA samples, the Herald Sun reported, citing sources.

Murder Mystery Dinner Theater with a Forensic Twist (sort of)

submitted by johndaly; comments by blogger jgl

John Daly sent this link. I think this type of project is a good idea for forensic professionals/students to work on. Great for public relations with local science centers and the public. Maybe even a revenue generator.

A murder has taken place at the Koshland Science Museum and you need to solve the crime! Interview suspects and collect evidence with forensics experts, including a medical examiner, a first response officer, and fingerprinting and firearms specialists.

What happened the night of the crime? How did the victim die? Who committed the crime? Using techniques that expert investigators use to solve real crimes, these are the questions you will answer as you solve the crime.

Fingerprint Images vs. Minutiae Templates

submitted by troym; comments by blogger jgl

Troy found this little story. I know very little about the fingerprint matching process. I thought that "minutiae templates" were used in the current method. It is interesting how they mention that vendor software is not cross-compatible. Is there room for improvement with the current fingerprint database system, or is it working out alright as it is?

A study by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shows that computerized systems that match fingerprints using interoperable minutiae templates--mathematical representations of a fingerprint image--can be highly accurate as an alternative to the full fingerprint image.

Minutiae templates are a fraction of the size of fingerprint images, require less storage memory and can be transmitted electronically faster than images. However, the techniques used by vendors to convert fingerprint images to minutiae are generally proprietary and their systems do not work with each other.

Results of the test are available at

Tuesday, May 09, 2006

Cornwell Challenges You!

by blogger jgl

I rarely read forensic books, and don't really care for forensic movies or television shows... but I have to give Patricia Cornwell credit for a nice website. The headline link goes right to her "Forensic Challenge", which is a neat little educational tool. This is a good idea for instruction at the high school or undergraduate level.

Perhaps the forensic community could produce and share videos like these. Otherwise, some stupid "educational tool" company will do it and try to charge 300 bucks for a dvd.

Friday, May 05, 2006

Forensic Tequilaists

by blogger jgl

Happy Cinco De Mayo!

Whether you’re celebrating Cinco de Mayo or just having another relaxing day in Margaritaville, you might one day thank a chemist for assuring the authenticity of your tequila. New tests developed by scientists in Mexico and Germany will help distinguish the real thing from fraudulent versions, which are a potential threat as this alcoholic beverage grows in popularity.

Using ion and gas chromatography, scientists analyzed 31 tequila samples of the 100 percent Agave category and compared the results to 25 mixed-tequila samples. The pure Agave tended to have significantly higher levels of certain chemicals, including methanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol, allowing them to be chemically distinguished as real, high-quality tequila, the researchers say. Although methanol was present, levels were small and did not reach toxic levels, they add.

In addition to these new tests, a screening test using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) may be used to identify fake tequilas from the real thing, the researchers say. The process, also known as molecular fingerprinting, takes only two minutes, they say. In general, the strategy of combining different spectroscopic and chromatographic methods is more accurate than previous identification attempts, which focused on other chemicals or the isotopic composition found in tequila, the researchers say.

Thursday, May 04, 2006

Deputies not poisoned by meth!

submitted by troym; comments by blogger jgl

Doesn't the headline and story just say it all?

Nobody slipped methamphetamine into a Sarpy County deputy's meal at an Applebee's restaurant, authorities said Friday.

Two Sarpy County sheriff's deputies said they became nauseated and disoriented after eating at the Papillion Applebee's on March 12.

The deputy's illness resulted from an adverse reaction to medication, Davis said.

The other deputy who became ill had not tested positive for meth, but Davis said investigators could not determine what caused the second deputy's illness.

"There are just some things you will never know," Davis said.

Even if you read the entire article (click on the blog headine above), there is still something missing here. The faulty first test originally showed meth was in the officer's food. This begs the question, does the Omaha lab perform comprehensive food analysis everytime an officer gets a tummy-ache? My guess is one of the officers had a beef with one of the cooks.

Wednesday, May 03, 2006

Lie Detectors (still) Don't Work!

Submitted by TroyM; comments by blogger jgl

Everybody knows that polygraphs don't work. With the possible exception of talk show hosts, the public, police, lawyers, and polygraph examiners.

In addition to the original article, John Daly has blogged some good material on the perception of infallibility of the forensic field.

The CIA, the FBI and other federal agencies are using polygraph machines more than ever to screen applicants and hunt for lawbreakers, even as scientists have become more certain that the equipment is ineffective in accurately detecting when people are lying.

Instead, many experts say, the real utility of the polygraph machine, or "lie detector," is that many of the tens of thousands of people who are subjected to it each year believe that it works -- and thus will frequently admit to things they might not otherwise acknowledge during an interview or interrogation.

Many researchers and defense attorneys say the technology is prone to a high number of false results that have stalled or derailed hundreds of careers and have prevented many qualified applicants from joining the fight against terrorism. At the FBI, for example, about 25 percent of applicants fail a polygraph exam each year, according to the bureau's security director.

In the popular mind, fueled by Hollywood representations, polygraphs are lie-detection machines that can peer inside people's heads to determine whether they are telling the truth.

The scientific reality is far different: The machines measure various physiological changes, including in blood pressure and heart rate, to determine when subjects are getting anxious, based on the idea that deception involves an element of anxiety. But because an emotion such as anxiety can be triggered by many factors other than lying, experts worry that the tests can overlook smooth-talking liars while pointing a finger at innocent people who just happen to be rattled.

25%! 25%! Somebody warn Maury Povich! I have a chip on my shoulder over this as I've had my career negatively altered because of this crap. I particularly like how they say the real utility is that people "believe" it works. Using this thing on applicants for forensic scientist positions is like placing a 40-year-old cynic on Santa's lap. (or something like that).

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Bigfoot Debunked!

submitted by TroyM; posted by jgl

Finally, forensic science being put to good use.

That’s why Moody, a 57-year-old forensic biologist at Ohio University, didn’t automatically dismiss numerous Bigfoot sightings in Ohio through the years until he investigated one particular event.

Now, Moody says he thinks that Bigfoot sightings in Ohio are nothing more than myth.

The owners of the property where the sighting occurred had just had a load of gravel spread. Afterward, it rained and water flowed down the lane, picking up pieces of gravel, stirring eddies and digging little trenches.

"These were being interpreted as toe impressions," Moody said.

The hair turned out to be from a whitetailed deer.

Thanks for the story, Troy. I think fun stuff like this at universities is great.
And i'm not just saying that because i am an OU graduate and Athens lover.

Male Contraception, Forensic Concern?

by blogger jgl

Well, i guess it's a stretch to say that rapists would use this pill to hide sperm, since DNA can still be obtained. I don't know... Professionals, does lack of sperm make it difficult to get a profile? Still, presence of sperm is an issue in forensics, so i guess this is worth noting.

A contraceptive pill for men could be a step closer according to a study in male fertility.

But a study has found that men actually regain their full potential within a few months when treatment with the drug is stopped.

Up until now, the only long-term option for male contraception has been the vasectomy.

Nun Case - Relying on Lee and Blood Pattern?

by blogger jgl

Isn't this type of pattern comparison the definition of junk science? Why was this even presented in court?

A renowned forensic expert testified Thursday that a bloody stain on an altar cloth might link a priest to the death of a nun in 1980.

Dr. Henry Lee, who analyzed evidence and helped reconstruct the killing for the prosecution, said the stain had characteristics similar to those of a medallion on a letter opener that prosecutors say was used to kill Sister Margaret Ann Pahl in the chapel of Mercy Hospital.

He pointed at an enlarged photo of a blood stain and drew the jury's attention to what he said looked like the dome outline of the Capitol.

"The size is similar, the shape is similar, the diameter is similar," he said. He would not, however, call it an exact match.

I'm sure the jury is carefully weighing the "not exactness" of it.

Forensic Headline Example

by blogger initials

This is where your comments go.

Put the quote from the article here. Put the quote from the article here. Put the quote from the article here.

This is where additional comments can go.

Bloggers - use this code

<img width=250 style="border: 2px solid black" src="">
<span style="font-size:85%;">by blogger jgl</span>

This is where your comments go.

<table style="background-color: rgb(143, 182, 141); padding: 15px; border: 4px ridge rgb(93, 132, 91); font-style: italic" ><tbody><tr><td>Put the quote from the article here.</td></tr></tbody></table>
Put additional comments here.